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SSL / TLS certificate formats and their use
SSL TLS that are can be saved in one of these formats: pem, cer, der, pfx. We shall explain how to work well with them or how exactly to convert SSL certificates to other formats.
Differences between formats
Just what is the difference between certificates registered under .p7b, .pfx, .p12, .pem, .der, .crt or .cer?
Note that the file expansion of an SSL / TLS certificate just isn’t crucial . An SSL / TLS certificate can be saved in txt format (which can be also the most typical for many Linux, Apache, Unix and other servers) or binary (Java, Microsoft Server).
The certificate is saved in a Base64 encoded text file. This certification can be exposed in a text editor such as for example Notepad, the text is encoded in Base64 and begins with —- BEGIN and ends with—- final end CERTIFICATE.
certificate in .txt format
Binary files cannot be opened in a text editor (you will not see anything).
It’s the format most often used to save SSL certificates. Most servers (eg Apache) utilize the key that is private the certificate in separate files. We can usually hear that the PEM certification is “text format” since it is encoded in Base64.
PEM is a Base64 encoded file using ASCII characters.
Certificates in PEM format most often have the extension .cer, .crt, .pem or .key (for the private key).
This format utilizes the Apache server and all servers Unix / Linux that is running OS.
DER is a binary format that is certificate. It is not a text file and therefore cannot be edited, copied and opened as text in Base64 (in Notepad etc.).
All types of certificates and the private key can be saved in DER format.
Certificates in DER format frequently have the expansion .cer or .der.
The DER format is used on Java platforms.
P7B / PKCS # 7 format
PKCS # 7 or P7B format means one or even more certificates in cheap ssl certificate uk format conserved in a file aided by the extension .p7b or .p7c.
A P7B file contains the certificate and chain certificates (intermediate certificates), but with no private key.
P7B files are used most often in the Java Tomcat platform.
The PKCS # 12 or PFX / P12 format is a format that is binary to save the certificate (and its intermediary) and its private key. The .pfx file containing the certificates and the private key is protected by a password.
The most extensions that are used .pfx and .p12.
PKCS # 12 is often utilized in Windows to import and export certificates with the key that is private.
Certificates saved in PFX may also be employed for signing in Microsoft Authenticode.
Install an certificate that is SSL WAMP
Installing an SSL certificate under a Wamp server (So on Windows) is relatively simple and takes only a few minutes, so we will see here how to generate a Self-signed certificate with server colocation and how to install it. Note that this manipulation cannot replace a real certificate purchased from a certification authority.
A note before starting, according to your version of Apache the paths to the files that are different folders may change. This documents was written with Apache2.2.21.
Initial steps are DOS commands, so the thing that is first to open a command prompt (Start -> Run -> cmd -> OK)
1 – go directly to the apache directory
2 – Generate the key that is private
We’ll begin by generating the private key, it will be in the.key that is”private file here the encryption is personal email hosting
openssl genrsa -aes256 -out private.key 2048
If you encounter the error â€œThe ordinal 296â€¦. SSLEAY32.dll “:
The solution is to go to this page: http://slproweb.com/products/Win32OpenSSL.html and to Win32 OpenSSL that is download v1.0.0k Light once installed you have to move to the directory / installation subdirectories to copy the files that are following
To paste them in the C: \ wamp \ bin \ apache \ Apache2.2.21 \ bin folder (confirming the replacements). The problem should then be corrected and the previous command run precisely.
3 – Delete the passphrase
We’ll release the key that is private the “passphrase” that protects it.
openssl rsa -in private.key -out private.key
4 – Generate the self-signed certificate
Right here we shall generate the certificate that is self-signed are used to certify the bond also to encrypt the exchanges.
Here the certificate will be valid for 100 years, so change 36500 by the number of days of validity of the certificate. Then the command prompt will ask you some information that is free you to enter it. Our certificate will bear the true name: “certificat.crt”
openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -sha1 -key personal.key
-out certificat.crt -days 36500
Generate a certificate with openSSL
5 – Copy the certificate as well as the private key
Now that our certificate and private key are created, we truly need to keep them on the server. To work on this, visit the folder C: \ wamp \ bin \ apache \ Apache2.2.21 \ conf and create two folders “cert” and “key”.
Copy certificat.crt in the â€œcertâ€ folder
Copy private.key to the “key” folder
6 – Editing setup files
In order to install our certificate, we need to edit three configuration files, the first two will enable SSL for Apache and PHP and the third will install the certificate on the server.
Edit C: \ wamp \ bin \ apache \ Apache2.2.21 \ conf \ httpd.conf
Uncomment the following lines (remove the â€œ#â€):
LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so
Edit C: \ wamp \ bin \ php \ php5.3.8 \ php.ini
Uncomment the following line (remove the;â€ that isâ€œ
Edit C: \ wamp \ bin \ apache \ Apache2.2.21 \ conf \ extra \ httpd-ssl.conf
Find the line: <VirtualHost _default_: 443>
Under this line, perform the search that is following replace:
Replace the relative line”DocumentRoot …” with:
DocumentRoot “c/ that is:/wamp/www
Replace the line “ServerNameâ€¦” with:
Replace the relative line”ErrorLog …” with:
Replace the relative line”TransferLog …” with:
Replace the relative lineâ€œSSLCertificateFileâ€¦â€ with:
Substitute the relative line”SSLCertificateKeyFile …” with:
SSLCertificateKeyFile “c.key that is:/wamp/bin/apache/Apache2.2.21/conf/key/private
Substitute the line “<Directoryâ€¦>” with:
Replace the relative line”CustomLog …” with:
CustomLog “C:/wamp/bin/apache/Apache2.2.21/logs/ssl_request.log” \
Here are some explanations regarding the parameters we have simply modified:
DocumentRoot : defines the root folder of the host
ServerName : defines the title regarding the server and its listening port (443 being the default SSL port)
ErrorLog : defines the location of the mistake log
TransferLog : defines the location of the access log
SSLCertificateFile : defines the location of the certificate
SSLCertificateKeyFile : defines the location of the private key
<Directoryâ€¦> : defines the properties on root folder
CustomLog : defines the location of the request log
7 – check out the setup
In a command prompt type the following command
The latter must return “Syntax OK”, if this will be not the case, there must be an error in the “httpd-ssl.conf” file, so you must return to the step that is previous check the configuration.
8 – Restart Wamp
You have actually to restart Wamp to ensure the different modifications are considered.
9 – Access to https: // localhost / must be feasible
The following message tells us that the connection is not certified, we must accept the risks, this is normal since our certificate is self-signed. This error would not appear if the certificate was purchased from a certification authority.
firefox SSL error that is certificate
Here, the certification is successfully installed.